Чем отличаются «буран» и «шаттл» (15 фото + 3 видео)

Brief development history

The space shuttle grew out of several efforts to develop reusable spacecraft. The X-15 program in the 1950s tested the idea of flying a space plane. The U.S. Air Force also conducted studies on semi-reusable spacecraft in the 1960s. NASA began work on an Integrated Launch and Re-entry Vehicle (ILRV) in 1968, and by 1969 the space shuttle’s development received approval from then-President Richard Nixon. 

The original vision of the space shuttle program was to develop a vehicle that would launch into space very frequently (several times a month) to deploy and repair satellites as required. The military was also an active participant in the development, and the shuttle’s payload bay (which carried equipment into satellites into space) was enlarged in the design phase to accommodate larger military satellites.

Specifically, the National Reconnaissance Office asked that the payload bay be enlarged and that the shuttle eventually run polar missions, which are suitable for satellites to see the entire Earth’s surface below. The Air Force constructed a launch pad in Vandenberg, Calif., for polar-orbiting missions, but the idea was abandoned after the Challenger disaster of 1986. Although several shuttle military missions ran in the 1980s, the practice dwindled down and ceased after Challenger’s explosion.


The Space Shuttle is probably the most sought after and prized item in the game of Space Agency.

Currently, it is a spacecraft that can neither be launched nor be re-entered, found near X = 635 Y = 1915 in Mission 30. After this mission, the Shuttle will appear docked to STA’s Oxygen Garden.

It looks like a NASA space shuttle (hence its name), and has a docking port on its port side near the cockpit. It can carry eight units of cargo, of which at least one must be taken up by a Battery.

Despite being based on the real-life space shuttle, which can be re-entered, it cannot yet be landed on HOM as of version 1.9.1 because, as the game states in Mission 30, its re-entry heat shield was damaged by a micrometeorite collision.

The Shuttle is one of 3 objects that cannot be found in the rocket assembly menu, the others being the green-colored Soyuz Docking Module, and the Spy Satellite.

When using Cargo view, both a Station Module Large and a scaled-down Truss Large can be seen inside the cargo bay.

Andy Barry, who is currently the main developer of Space Agency, says he has plans to add the space shuttle into the game as a fully usable part, and it will be able to be launched and re-entered, as well as carry payloads.

The reason why we cannot launch nor reenter is because when launching it would have on its side but then we wouldn’t be able to dock anything with it.But when reentering it would again have to be on its side view. Since this is a 2D game it wouldn’t work.


  • In version 1.7.0, a second shuttle with fuel and fully-charged batteries could be found at coordinates X: -99 Y: -99, after completing Mission 32. This was removed in version 1.8.0.
  • The only current way to add additional shuttles to a sandbox is by modifying the saved sandbox file.
  • The Shuttle’s name is «Nooleus», with the NASA logo on the shuttle replaced by the Nooleus logo.
  • Trying to land the Shuttle on HOM is impossible, thus, it always fails.
  • It looks like the Space Shuttle Endeavour.
  • The Space Shuttles do not ferry cargo to the ISS today as the program has been retired. However, Endeavour is still functional, and kept at a museum in California.
  • «Shuttle Re-imagined» is a blog created by user Angrycat9000, which suggests how the Space Shuttle launch and reentry may work. And user Ian75 made an animation to simulate it.
  • When pressing the engine button instead of the three main engines giving thrust the two thrusters at the side give the shuttle the boost.

The shuttle docked to STA in the extension project controlled by MLSA

Shuttle seen from Quick Play mode

The interior view of the shuttle

The location of the Space Shuttle during Mission 30 by the arrow. It moves further southeast as the mission gets longer.

Space shuttle elements and launch

The space shuttle, officially called the Space Transportation System, was made up of three main components :

  • Two solid rocket boosters, which provided most of the shuttle’s thrust during launch
  • The huge rust-colored external tank, which fed fuel to the three main engines during launch
  • The orbiter, which contained the crew cabin, payload bay, and three main engines.

The solid rocket boosters (SRBs) operated for the first two minutes of flight to provide additional thrust needed to get the shuttle into orbit. About 24 miles (45 kilometers) up, the boosters separated from the external tank and descended on parachutes into the Atlantic Ocean. Ships recovered them, and they were refurbished for reuse.

Each booster contained a solid propellant motor — the largest ever developed for space flight. Each motor contained more than 1 million lbs. (450,000 kilograms) of a propellant, a solid mixture of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum, as well as an iron oxide catalyst to aid the burning reaction and a «binder» material to hold all the components together, according to the American Chemistry Council. The entire mixture has the consistency of a pencil eraser. Ammonium perchlorate is also used by the U.S. military in rockets, explosives, flares and ammunition..

The 15-story, rust-colored external tank was the only shuttle component that was not reused. It fed more than 500,000 gallons of fuel — liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen — to the shuttle’s main engines during launch. The tank was also the «backbone» of the space shuttle structure. It provided support for the rocket boosters and orbiter.

After the solid rocket boosters separated, the orbiter carried the external tank to about 70 miles (113 km) above the Earth. With its fuel spent, the tank separated and fell along a planned trajectory. Most of it burned up in the atmosphere, and the rest fell into the ocean.

The orbiter is the component most people think of as «the shuttle.» It was the heart and brains of the system and the actual ship that took people to space and brought them back. The orbiter was about the same size as a DC-9 aircraft. It was 122 feet (37 meters) long and had a wingspan of 78 feet (23 m). The crew compartment, located in the forward fuselage, normally carried crews of seven astronauts, but occasionally carried fewer people. The largest crew size for a shuttle mission was eight astronauts.

The mid-fuselage housed a 60-foot (18-meter) payload bay and robotic arm. The bay could hold satellites, modules containing whole laboratories, and construction materials for the International Space Station. The aft fuselage held the orbital maneuvering system, main engines and vertical tail. Smaller thrusters located at the shuttle’s nose and aft fuselage were used for small flight adjustments.

Источники Править

  • «Звёздные войны. Повстанцы: Сабин. Мой повстанческий блокнот»
  • «Звёздные войны. Повстанцы: Мощь повстанцев!»
  • «Звёздные войны: Абсолютно всё, что нужно знать»
  • «Звёздные войны: Звездолёты галактики»
  • «Пробуждение Силы: Иллюстрированный словарь»
  • «Звёздные войны. Пробуждение Силы: Взгляд изнутри»
  • «Звёздные войны: Руководство по выживанию Рей»
  • «Звёздные войны: Полный путеводитель по мирам»
  • «Звёздные войны. По Дэмерон: Бортовой журнал»
  • «Звёздные войны: Атлас далёкой галактики»
  • «Звёздные войны: Изгой-один. Полный иллюстрированный справочник»
  • «Звёздные войны: На передовой»
  • «Звёздные войны: Документы повстанцев»
  • «Последние джедаи: Иллюстрированный словарь»
  • «Звёздные войны. Последние джедаи: Взгляд изнутри»
  • «Звёздные войны: Последние джедаи: Полная коллекция наклеек»
  • «Звёздные войны. Последние джедаи: Развивающая книга с наклейками» (только изображение)
  • «Заря Восстания»
  • «Супертехника «Звёздных войн»: всё о звездолётах, шагоходах, подах и шаттлах»
  • «Последние джедаи. Роуз Тико: Боец Сопротивления»
  • «Байки с Вандора»
  • «Звёздные войны: Справочник контрабандиста»
  • «Энциклопедия «Звёздных войн», новое издание»
  • «Руководство владельца повстанческих истребителей по эксплуатации»


  • In version 1.7.0, a second shuttle with fuel and fully-charged batteries could be found at coordinates X: -99 Y: -99, after completing Mission 32. This was removed in version 1.8.0.
  • The only current way to add additional shuttles to a sandbox is by modifying the saved sandbox file.
  • The Shuttle’s name is «Nooleus», with the NASA logo on the shuttle replaced by the Nooleus logo.
  • Trying to land the Shuttle on HOM is impossible, thus, it always fails.
  • It looks like the Space Shuttle Endeavour.
  • The Space Shuttles do not ferry cargo to the ISS today as the program has been retired. However, Endeavour is still functional, and kept at a museum in California.
  • «Shuttle Re-imagined» is a blog created by user Angrycat9000, which suggests how the Space Shuttle launch and reentry may work. And user Ian75 made an animation to simulate it.
  • When pressing the engine button instead of the three main engines giving thrust the two thrusters at the side give the shuttle the boost.

The shuttle docked to STA in the extension project controlled by MLSA

Shuttle seen from Quick Play mode

The interior view of the shuttle

Армейские фото на Shutterstock: Army and military photos.

The location of the Space Shuttle during Mission 30 by the arrow. It moves further southeast as the mission gets longer.

NASA Orbiter Fleet

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Space Shuttle Overview: Atlantis (OV-104)  

NASA’s fourth space-rated space shuttle, OV-104 «Atlantis,» was named after the two-masted boat that served as the primary research vessel for the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute in Massachusetts from 1930 to 1966. The boat had a 17-member crew and accommodated up to five scientists who worked in two onboard laboratories, examining water samples and marine life. The crew also used the first electronic sounding devices to map the ocean floor.Image to right: During its second major overhaul, Atlantis received the new Multifunction Electronic Display System, or «glass cockpit.» Credit: NASA

Construction of the orbiter Atlantis began on March 3, 1980. Thanks to lessons learned in the construction and testing of orbiters Enterprise, Columbia and Challenger, Atlantis was completed in about half the time in man-hours spent on Columbia. This is largely attributed to the use of large thermal protection blankets on the orbiter’s upper body, rather than individual tiles requiring more attention.

Weighing in at 151,315 pounds when it rolled out of the assembly plant in Palmdale, Calif., Atlantis was nearly 3.5 tons lighter than Columbia. The new orbiter arrived at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida on April 9, 1985, and over the next seven months was prepared for her maiden voyage.

Like her seafaring predecessor, orbiter Atlantis \carried on the spirit of exploration with several important missions of her own. On Oct. 3, 1985, Atlantis launched on her first space flight, STS 51-J, with a classified payload for the U.S. Department of Defense. The vehicle went on to carry four more DOD payloads on later missions.Image to left: Riding twin plumes of flame produced by its Solid Rocket Boosters, Space Shuttle Atlantis clears the tower as it launches on mission STS-46. Credit: NASA

Atlantis also served as the on-orbit launch site for many noteworthy spacecraft, including planetary probes Magellan and Galileo, as well as the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. An impressive array of onboard science experiments took place during most missions to further enhance space research in low Earth orbit.

Starting with STS-71, Atlantis pioneered the Shuttle-Mir missions, flying the first seven missions to dock with the Russian space station. When linked, Atlantis and Mir together formed the largest spacecraft in orbit at the time. The missions to Mir included the first on-orbit U.S. crew exchanges, now a common occurrence on the International Space Station. On STS-79, the fourth docking mission, Atlantis ferried astronaut Shannon Lucid back to Earth after her record-setting 188 days in orbit aboard Mir.

In recent years, Atlantis has delivered several vital components to the International Space Station, including the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, as well as the Joint Airlock Quest and multiple sections of the Integrated Truss structure that makes up the station’s backbone.Construction Milestones — OV-104

Jan. 29, 1979 Contract Award
March 30, 1980 Start structural assembly of crew module
Nov. 23, 1981 Start structural assembly of aft-fuselage
June 13, 1983 Wings arrive at Palmdale from Grumman
Dec. 2, 1983 Start of Final Assembly
April 10, 1984 Completed final assembly
March 6, 1985 Rollout from Palmdale
April 3, 1985 Overland transport from Palmdale to Edwards
April 13, 1985 Delivery to Kennedy Space Center
Sept. 12, 1985 Flight Readiness Firing
Oct. 3, 1985 First Flight (STS 51-J)

Upgrades and Features

By early 2005, Atlantis had undergone two overhauls known as Orbiter Maintenance Down Periods. Some of the most significant upgrades and new features included:

  • Installation of the drag chute
  • New plumbing lines and electrical connections configuring the orbiter for extended duration missions
  • New insulation for the main landing gear doors
  • Improved nosewheel steering
  • Preparations for the Mir Orbiter Docking System unit later installed at Kennedy
  • Installation of the International Space Station airlock and Orbiter Docking System
  • Installation of the Multifunction Electronic Display System, or «glass cockpit»

For additional information, visit:› Shuttle Facts and Statistics

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Cultural and technical firsts

In addition to milestones in space technology, Challenger was also host to several cultural firsts in the space shuttle program. The first American female astronaut, Sally Ride, rode up on Challenger on STS-7 in June 1983.  The first black astronaut, Guion Bluford, reached space on STS-8.

On STS-41G in 1984, two women — Ride and Kathryn Sullivan — flew on one mission for the first time — as well as the first Canadian, Marc Garneau.

Other milestones Challenger achieved included the first night launch and landing (STS-8) and the first operational Spacelab flight (STS-51B). Spacelab was a European space laboratory that fit into a shuttle’s cargo bay and included several experiments designed for tests in microgravity. It flew on Columbia on STS-9 for the first time, but Challenger’s mission is considered the first working one.

This full view of Challenger in space was taken by a satellite. A heavily cloud-covered portion of the Earth forms the backdrop for this scene of Challenger in orbit. This image was taken during Challenger’s STS-7 mission, which launched on June 18, 1983. (Image credit: NASA)

Cultural and technical problems

A presidential commission was convened to look into the incident, chaired by former Attorney General and Secretary of State William P. Rogers. It included participation from Neil Armstrong (the first man on the moon) and NASA astronaut Sally Ride, among others.

The commission report talked about the technical causes of the accident, which was traced to cold weather degrading the seal on the solid rocket boosters designed to help bring the shuttle into orbit.

Additionally, it brought to light cultural problems at NASA, such as failing to report all problems to the launch decision team. The commission also said that the shuttle’s proposed flight rate was unsustainable, given the size of its workforce.

In the wake of what happened with Challenger, NASA made technical changes to the shuttle and also worked to change the culture of its workforce. The shuttle program resumed flights in 1988.

After the Challenger wreckage was examined, most of the pieces were buried and sealed in abandoned Minuteman missile silos at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, where they remain today.

Challenger’s explosion changed the space shuttle program in several ways. Plans to fly civilians in space (such as teachers or journalists) were shelved for the next 22 years, until Barbara Morgan, who was McAuliffe’s backup, flew aboard Endeavour in 2007. Satellite launches were shifted from the shuttle to reusable rockets. Additionally, astronauts were pulled off duties such as repairing satellites, and the Manned Maneuvering Unit was not flown again, to better preserve astronaut safety.

Every January, NASA pauses to remember the last crew of Challenger and the other crews lost in pursuing space, on a NASA Day of Remembrance. 

Challenger has also left an educational legacy: Members of the crews’ families founded the Challenger Center for Space Science Education program, which brings students on simulated space missions.

Visitors to the Kennedy Space Center can view debris from Challenger’s last mission (as well as Columbia) at an exhibit called «Forever Remembered,» which opened in 2015. The debris is on display at the visitor’s center.

Additional resources:

  • 25 Years After Challenger: How Grief Inspired Teachers and Students
  • Read more about NASA’s space shuttle program.
  • Listen: 30 Years After Explosion, Challenger Engineer Still Blames Himself, from NPR. 

The flying repairman

Some of Challenger’s most memorable moments took place in April 1984, on STS-41C. That mission featured the very first astronaut repair of a satellite.

To get at the nonfunctional Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite, astronaut George Nelson strapped himself into the Manned Maneuvering Unit, which was a jet-powered backpack designed for astronauts to fly in space. It had been tested on only one mission before this one.

The crew maneuvered Challenger until it was only 200 feet from the satellite. Then, Nelson carefully left the safety of the shuttle and flew over to the satellite. A fixture on the front of his backpack let Nelson dock with the satellite, which was slowly tumbling in space.

Next, he fired the jets on his backpack to stop the satellite’s spin. Crewmembers on Challenger then reached out with the shuttle’s Canadarm robotic arm and plucked the satellite out of empty space and into the payload bay.

Nelson and crewmate James «Ox» Van Hoften repaired the satellite, then the crew lofted the satellite back into space. SMM continued functioning for several years, then burned up in the atmosphere in December 1989.

On Jan. 28, 1986, NASA faced its first shuttle disaster, the loss of the Challenger orbiter and its seven-astronaut crew. Here, Challenger’s last crew – members of the STS-51L mission – stand in the White Room at Pad 39B following the end of a launch dress rehearsal. They are (L to R) Teacher in Space Participant, Sharon «Christa» McAuliffe, Payload Specialist, Gregory Jarvis, Mission Specialist, Judy Resnik, Commander Dick Scobee. Mission Specialist, Ronald McNair, Pilot, Michael Smith and Mission Specialist, Ellison Onizuka. (Image credit: NASA)

The space shuttles

The shuttle program had five space shuttles, as wellas the test orbiter Enterprise. Here are some notable facts about each one.

While the shuttle program was mostly conducted in space, Enterprise was constructed for drop-and-landing tests in 1977, furthering previous NASA and military work on flying-wing space vehicles. Enterprise successfully did a series of rigorous tests, starting with taxi work and culminating in several free flights and touchdowns.. Enterprise was deployed on goodwill tours to several countries, and then became the property of the Smithsonian Institution. It temporarily was displayed at the Stephen F. Udvar-Hazy airport annex of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Fairfax, Va., and then moved permanently in 2012 to the Intrepid Sea, Air and Space Museum in New York City.

Columbia (1981-2003): This was the first space shuttle to fly in space. It conducted several test flights, which dealt with early problems with the heat shield and with the automatic landing systems. Operational missions began in 1982. Some of its major mission activities included Spacelab, deploying the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. The last mission, STS-107, ended catastrophically on Feb. 1, 2003, during landing when the shuttle broke up in the atmosphere, killing its seven-person crew. The cause was traced to a foam piece falling off of the external tank during takeoff and smashing into the wing, causing a hole. Several design changes were made to the space shuttle program after Columbia’s demise, and a new inspection procedures to look at tiles after launch (while the astronauts were in space) were devised.

Challenger (1983-1986): Challenger was originally constructed as a test vehicle and then was upgraded for spaceflight. Its major mission milestones included launching the first Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (which the shuttles used to stay in touch with Mission Control), flying the first American female astronaut (Sally Ride), flying the first African-American (Guion Bluford) and the first astronaut repair of a satellite (the Solar Maximum Mission satellite). The shuttle exploded on Jan. 28, 1986, during liftoff of mission STS-51L, killing all seven astronauts on board. The technical cause was traced to an external booster rocket seal failing, but managerial causes were also blamed – including extensive pressure on the shuttle program to launch frequently. The disaster prompted design changes, a safety review (and changes) of the shuttle program, and a permanent slowdown of shuttle launch frequency.

Discovery (1984-2011): Discovery’s first mission, STS-41D in 1984, underwent a pad abort due to a fuel valve issue, but the mission launched safely a few weeks later and released three communications satellites. It flew 39 missions — the most of any shuttle — and some of the major payloads it released included the Hubble Space Telescope, the sun-bound Ulysses spacecraft and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. It even flew Mercury astronaut John Glenn at age 77, making him the oldest person to fly in space to date. Discovery was also the first shuttle to fly «return to flight» missions after both the Challenger and Columbia disasters. It was decommissioned after its last flight in 2011 and is now displayed at the Stephen F. Udvar-Hazy airport annex of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Fairfax, Va.

Atlantis (1985-2011): The first mission of this shuttle was a secret military mission in 1985, for which few details are known even today. Some of its other activities included lobbing three communication satellites into orbit in one mission, launching the Magellan spacecraft toward Venus, launching the Galileo probe toward Jupiter, flying most of the missions of the shuttle-Mir program, and flying the last space shuttle mission (STS-135 in 2011). The shuttle was decommissioned and is currently on display at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex near the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla.

Endeavour (1992-2011): Endeavour was constructed out of spare parts from other space shuttles, as a replacement for the Challenger space shuttle that exploded in 1986. During Endeavour’s first mission, STS-49 in 1992, crewmembers performed the first three-person spacewalk to bring the hard-to-grasp Intelsat VI satellite into the payload bay for repairs. Endeavour performed several scientifically oriented missions and was the first shuttle to participate in assembly of the International Space Station. After its last mission in 2011, Endeavour was decommissioned and is now on display at the California Science Center.

Additional reporting by Elizabeth Howell, Space.com contributor.

Delays for the first flight

Challenger was expected to go into space on Jan. 20, 1983, to release the first Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), which later became part of a series of satellites that astronauts used to stay in touch with controllers back home. Several technical malfunctions pushed the launch back, though.

First, NASA discovered a hydrogen leak in the No. 1 main engine aft compartment during a flight readiness test in December. In a second test on Jan. 25, 1983, NASA discovered cracks in the engine that were causing the leak.

The agency then took several months to remove the engines and test them. While engines No. 2 and No. 3 were deemed healthy, NASA replaced engine No. 1.

After another delay due to a problem with the TDRS, Challenger launched successfully on April 4, 1983, on mission STS-6. Crewmembers set the satellite free. Astronauts Story Musgrave and Donald Peterson executed the first spacewalk of the shuttle program.

From test vehicle to space vehicle

NASA originally intended Challenger to be a test vehicle, according to the Kennedy Space Center. Rockwell International, an aerospace manufacturing company, began building the shuttle in November 1975 and then sent it to Lockheed Martin, an aerospace technology company, for structural testing starting on April 2, 1978. According to NASA, computer models at the time were not sophisticated enough to calculate the stresses on the shuttle during different phases of flight.

The shuttle, then known as STA-099, went through 11 months of vibration testing in a specially formulated rig, NASA said. This custom-designed machine could bring the shuttle through a simulation of all phases of flight, from liftoff to landing. Three hydraulic cylinders, each with 1 million lbs. of force, were used as substitute space shuttle main engines.

In 1979, NASA awarded Rockwell International a supplemental contract to convert the test vehicle to a spacecraft. This would expand the shuttle fleet to two spacecraft, with Columbia being the first.

It took two more years for Rockwell to perform the conversion. Among other things, workers had to strengthen the wings, put in a real crew cabin instead of a simulated one and install heads-up displays for the astronauts working inside. Work was completed on Oct. 23, 1981.

The space shuttle Challenger is rolled out to Launch Pad 39A at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The orbiter cuts through the thick fog as it makes its way to the pad, in preparation for its maiden flight – the STS-6 mission. Challenger launched on its STS-6 flight on April 4, 1983. (Image credit: NASA)

Space Shuttle Launch and Landing

Image above: Space shuttle Atlantis launches July 8, 2011 on the STS-135 mission, the final flight of the Space Shuttle Program. Image credit: NASA › View larger image Beginning with space shuttle Columbia’s 1979 delivery to NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the center has been home to each of the five flown shuttle orbiters for the duration of the Space Shuttle Program. Space shuttle Atlantis completed the program on July 21, 2011, wrapping up the STS-135 mission with a predawn touchdown on the same runway where Columbia first arrived more than 30 years earlier. NASA’s shuttle fleet — Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour — flew a total of 135 missions. Each one began at Kennedy’s Launch Complex 39. Of those missions, 78 ended with a Kennedy landing; 54 concluded with a touchdown on the dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base in California; and one landed at White Sands Space Harbor in New Mexico. Each mission began with a thundering liftoff as the shuttle’s twin solid rocket boosters ignited, pushing the vehicle with its crew and cargo beyond the bounds of gravity and into the hostile environment of space. Missions typically lasted one to two weeks, concluding with an hourlong reentry descent through Earth’s atmosphere and a precision landing. Because a returning shuttle orbiter was essentially an unpowered glider, there were no second chances — every touchdown had to be perfect. To meet the rigorous demands of spaceflight, each vehicle element — the orbiter, external fuel tank and boosters — and all subsystems underwent meticulous maintenance and preparation before each flight. Multiple vehicles could be in various stages of processing at any given time. Once a shuttle was returned to its bay in the orbiter processing facility after landing, teams checked, refurbished or installed hardware for the flight ahead. The shuttle then was towed to the nearby Vehicle Assembly Building, where it was joined to its tank and boosters. Finally, the completed launch vehicle and its mobile launcher platform rolled out to the launch pad atop a sturdy, slow-moving crawler-transporter. A spectacular liftoff was the reward for each processing flow, and upon landing, the sequence began once again.

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